Endnotes

  1. Country studies for Malaysia, Guyana and Indonesia were first shared in an international workshop in Palangka Raya in 2014 – see FPP, Pusaka, Kelompok Kera (2014) Securing Forests, Securing Rights: report of an international workshop on deforestation and the rights of forest peoples http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/private/ publication/2014/09/prreport.pdf Additional studies and updated assessments have been completed by FPP and partners in 2015, 2016 and 2017.
  2. Devriendt, N et al (2013) The impacts of EU consumption of food and non-food imports on deforestation: Proposing specific community policy and legislative measures and other initiatives EC Technical Report 2013/065 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/3.%20eport%20 policies%20proposal.pdf
  3. WWF (2017) Risky Business: Understanding the UK’s overseas footprint for deforestation-risk commodities WWF, RSPB, London
  4. http://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/human-rights-and-the-sdgs-progress-or-a-missed-opportunity/
  5. http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/ sites/2/2014/07/New-York-Declaration-on-Forest-%E2%80%93- Action-Statement-and-Action-Plan.pdf
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/TFA_Annual_ Report_2017_v8.1_Web-Report-Small.compressed.pdf
  9. https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/TFA_Annual_ Report_2017_v8.1_Web-Report-Small.compressed.pdf
  10. Source: http://www.bad-ag.info/commodities/woodproducts/
  11. Lawson, S. (2014) Consumer Goods and Deforestation: An Analysis of the Extent and Nature of Illegality in Forest Conversion for Agriculture and Timber Plantations Forest Trends, Washington DC
  12. e.g. http://blog.cifor.org/10221/deforestation-from-mining-in-the-congo-more-than-a-hole-in-the-canopy?fnl=en
  13. White, S (2017) “More than half of EU biodiesel made from imported crops, study finds” https://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/ news/more-than-half-of-eu-biodiesel-made-from-imported-crops-study-finds/
  14. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/impact_deforestation.htm
  15. http://www.euredd.efi.int/publications/global-supply-chain-transparency
  16. http://www.euredd.efi.int/publications/achieving-zero-deforestation-commitments
  17. file:///C:/Users/Fppguest/Downloads/Amsterdam+Declaration+Defore station+%2526+Agro-Scommodity+chains.pdf
  18. file:///C:/Users/Fppguest/Downloads/ Amsterdam+Declaration+Fully+Sustainable+Palm+Oil.pdf
  19. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5896200f414fb57d26f3d600/t/ 59153d1c8419c21e9bc4bee7/1494564125046/GCF_2014_ RioBrancoDeclaration_26_Members_EN.PDF
  20. http://spappssecext.worldbank.org/sites/indc/PDF_Library/cm.pdf
  21. https://unfccc.int/files/meetings/marrakech_nov_2016/statements/ application/pdf/malaysia_cop22cmp12cma1_hls.pdf
  22. http://www.mpoc.org.my/Malaysian_Sustainable_Palm_Oil_(MSPO)_ to_be_Made_Mandatory_by_2019.aspx
  23. http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/indonesia_moratorium_on_new_ forest_concessions.pdf
  24. https://www.unep-wcmc.org/system/comfy/cms/files/ files/000/001/054/original/Briefing_note_April_2017-May_2017.pdf
  25. http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/ Indonesia/1/INDC_REPUBLIC%20OF%20INDONESIA.pdf
  26. https://www.iucn.org/news/forests/201702/cameroon-restore-12- million-hectares-forest-species-rich-congo-basin
  27. http://www.cafi.org/content/dam/cafi/docs/drc-documents/DRC_2016_ LOI%20V7%20Final%2018%20April%202016%20-ENG%20-%20 with%20logos.pdf
  28. http://www.cafi.org/content/dam/cafi/docs/drc-documents/DRC_2016_ LOI%20V7%20Final%2018%20April%202016%20-ENG%20-%20 with%20logos.pdf
  29. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/Liberia-and-Norway-launch-climate-and-forest-partnership/id2001145/
  30. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/Liberia-and-Norway-launch-climate-and-forest-partnership/id2001145/
  31. Ibid.
  32. https://www.international-climate-initiative.com/fileadmin/ Dokumente/2013-DE-NO-UK-US_joint_announcement_on_REDD__ COP19.pdf
  33. http://www.terraglobalcapital.com/sites/default/files/Colombia%20 Zero%20Deforesation.pdf
  34. http://wwf.panda.org/?210224/Paraguay-extends-Zero-Deforestation- Law-to-2018
  35. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-90.pdf
  36. http://www4.unfccc.int/ndcregistry/PublishedDocuments/Guyana%20 First/Guyana’s%20revised%20NDC%20-%20Final.pdf
  37. http://www4.unfccc.int/ndcregistry/PublishedDocuments/Guyana%20 First/Guyana’s%20revised%20NDC%20-%20Final.pdf
  38. Hansen, M.C. et al (2013) “High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st- Century Forest Cover Change.” Science 342 (6160): 850-853. doi: 10.1126/science.1244693.
  39. https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/ ImprovingLandGovernanceIndonesia.pdf
  40. http://www.coha.org/deforestation-in-peru-building-a-dramatic-future-in-the-amazon-and-the-andean-region/ See also http://www. actualidadambiental.pe/?p=46292
  41. Ministerio de ambiente y desarrollo sostenible. (2017) Estrategia integral de control a la deforestación y gestión de los bosques (EICDBG). Bogotá. http://www.minambiente.gov.co/images/EICDGB_1.0_ AGOSTO_9_2017.pdf See also IDEAM (2017) Reportes de Alertas Tempranas de deforestación en 2016 (enero-diciembre), IDEAM, Bogotá
  42. Kaye, M (2012) Deforestation from mining in the Congo more than ‘a hole in the canopy’ http://blog.cifor.org/10221/deforestation-from-mining-in-the-congo-more-than-a-hole-in-the-canopy?fnl=en
  43. Arevelos, F, Ortiz, E and Báez, M (2017) Monitoreo Mensual del Cambio de Uso y Cobertura de la Tierra, Incendios y Variación de la Cubierta de Aguas en el Gran Chaco Americano Informe mensual: Marzo 2017 Guyra Paraguay, Asunción http://guyra.org.py/informe-deforestacion-2017/
  44. The World Bank reports that the DRC annual deforestation rate is 0.3%. Scientific studies indicate that deforestation in DRC increased in most provinces during the period 2000-2012. See, for example, Ickowitz, A et al (2015) Agriculture and Deforestation in the DRC: a synthesis of the current state of knowledge, CIFOR Occasional Paper No.119, Bogor at pages 7-9. Deforestation is mainly associated with commercial farms, infrastructure and settlements around medium sized cities (ibid.).
  45. Recent official data for Colombia in 2016-17 shows deforestation rates in the last 12 months have increased in the Amazon region (IDEAM 2017)
  46. Official reports in Peru registered a loss of 164 662 ha of forest cover in the Amazonian region in 2016, up 5.2% compared to 2015 (156 462 ha) Source: http://www.actualidadambiental.pe/?p=46292
  47. Annual Report on Human Rights Defenders at Risk in 2016 Frontline Defenders, Dublin https://www.frontlinedefenders.org/en/resource-publication/annual-report-human-rights-defenders-risk-2016
  48. https://www.infobae.com/america/colombia/2017/07/14/defensoria-de-colombia-denuncio-el-asesinato-de-52-lideres-sociales-en-el-2017/
  49. Shadow report on the situation of human rights defenders in Indonesia (2012-2016) http://hrwg.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/6-UPR-Shadow-Report-on-the-Situation-of-Human-Rights-Defenders-in- Indonesia-1.pdf
  50. “Indigenous leaders from community of Santa Clara de Uchunya investigating invasion and destruction of their forests escape assassination” FPP Press Release, 12 December 2017 https://www. forestpeoples.org/en/legal-human-rights/news-article/2017/ indigenous-leaders-community-santa-clara-de-uchunya
  51. See, for example, Amengual, F and Otaxú Melgarejo V M (2014) Violencia e impunidad hacia el Pueblo Pai Tavyterã-Kaiowa: aproximación a la situación de violación de derechos humanos en la frontera paraguayo-brasileña Tierra Viva, Asunción
  52. Rogers D S (2017) “An Off-the-Record Genocide: Global Resource Extraction Economy Destroys DR Congo Indigenous Groups” https:// www.globalresearch.ca/an-off-the-record-genocide-global-resource-extraction-economy-destroys-dr-congo-indigenous-groups/5604829 See also: https://humanrightsdefenders.blog/tag/mutebwa-kaboko/
  53. http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/legal-human-rights-civil-political-rights/news-article/2017/threat-death-strong-and-smouldering-non
  54. Mendieta M (2016) op. cit.
  55. Persch-Orth M and Mwangi E (2016) Company-community conflict in Indonesia’s industrial plantation sector CIFOR Info Brief No.143, Bogor http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/infobrief/6141-infobrief.pdf
  56. http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/legal-human-rights-civil-political-rights/news-article/2017/threat-death-strong-and-smouldering-non
  57. https://iva.aippnet.org/malaysia-sabah-resolution-on-human-rights-and-agribusiness-in-southeast-asia/
  58. FPP (2017) Forest Defenders: in their words FPP, Moreton in Marsh http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/legal-human-rights/report/2017/ protecting-forest-defenders
  59. Maninjau Resolution, 2016 http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/topics/ agribusiness/news/2016/02/maninjau-resolution-0
  60. https://www.iwgia.org/en/malaysia/2110-malaysia-new-report-calls-for-respect-of-indigenou
  61. Espinosa R and Feather, C (2015) op. cit. at page 53
  62. Lovera, M (2014) The impacts of unsustainable livestock farming and soybean production in Paraguay: a case study Global Forest Coalition, Asunción http://globalforestcoalition.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/05/Impacts-Soy-Cattle-3-ML-11.pdf
  63. http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/environmental-governance/press-release/2017/press-release-wapichan-people-expose-rights-violations
  64. Hosonuma, N et al (2012) “An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries” Environmental Research Letters 7(4)(2012) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044009
  65. Austin, K G et al (2017) “Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers” Environmental Research Letters 12(5)(2017) http://iopscience.iop.org/ article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6a88
  66. Mayaux P et al (2013) “State and evolution of African Rainforests between 1990 and 2010” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 368(1625) http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ content/368/1625/20120300.short
  67. MAAP (2017) MAAP#63: Patterns of deforestation in the Colombian Amazon MAAP Update MAAP (2017) MAAP #37: Deforestation Hotspot in the central Peruvian Amazon driven by Cattle Pasture MAAP Update http://maaproject.org/2016/hotspot-huanuco/
  68. McSweeney, K et al (2014) “Drug Policy as Conservation Policy: Narco- Deforestation” Science 31 Jan 2014: Vol. 343, Issue 6170, pp. 489-490 DOI: 10.1126/science.1244082
  69. Alianza Arkana (2016) Whose Development? Indigenous Peoples and Megaprojects in the Peruvian Amazon http://alianzaarkana.org/ blog/?p=2735&lang=en
  70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3720032/
  71. Koné L, Ngulungu A, Mbanzidi N, Kipalu P and Gata T (2016) Land reform and protection of communities’ rights: Report of the seminar on information sharing on the land reform process and the protection of communities’ rights in the implementation of forest policies and climate initiatives in the DRC FPP, RRN, DGPA, Kinshasa https://www. forestpeoples.org/sites/default/files/publication/2017/05/drc-legality-seminar-english-web_0.pdf
  72. Davis, A (2017) “170 Years without definite land laws” https://www. liberianobserver.com/news/170-years-without-definite-land-laws/
  73. http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/01/05/15230131/konflik. agraria.naik.hampir.dua.kali.lipat.pada.2016
  74. Shahab, N (2016) Indonesia: One Map Policy https://www. opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/case-study_Indonesia_One- Map-Policy.pdf
  75. http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/default/files/documents/ PONTIANAK%20STATEMENT%20ON%20HUMAN%20RIGHTS%20 AND%20AGRIBUSINESS%20IN%20SOUTHEAST%20ASIA%20 final%20with%20recs.pdf
  76. Atkinson S, Wilson D, Da Silva A, Benjamin P, Peters C, Williams I, Alfred R and Thomas D (2016) Our Land, Our Life: A Participatory Assessment of the Land Tenure Situation of Indigenous Peoples in Guyana – Report for Regions 1 and 2 APA-FPP, Georgetown http://www. forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2016/12/lta-study.pdf
  77. http://www.thestar.com.my/metro/views/2017/10/21/more-protection-needed-for-ncr-land-judgment-leaves-native-landowners-with-compensation-and-no-land/
  78. Colchester M, Jalong, T and Meng Chuo W (2013) “Sarawak: IOI-Pelita and the community of Long Teran Kanan” in Colchester M and Chao, S (Eds)(2013) op. cit.
  79. Valqui M, Feather, C and Pineda R (2015) Revealing the Hidden: indigenous perspectives on deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon – causes and solutions AIDESEP /FPP, Lima and Moreton in Marsh http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2015/02/ fppperureportenglishinternetfinalaug32015.pdf
  80. George, L and Ålmas O (2014) “Amerindian Lands and Resources in the Upper Mazaruni Under Siege” pp 41-60 in Dooley K and Griffiths T (Eds) (2014) Indigenous Peoples’ Rights, Forests and Climate Policies in Guyana APA and FPP, Georgetown and Moreton in Marsh
  81. Perram, A (2016) Behind the Veil: transparency, access to information and community rights in Cameroon’s forest sector FPP, Moreton in Marsh http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/ publication/2016/06/behind-veil-artwork-english-web-1.pdf
  82. Perram, A (2016) op. cit.
  83. See, for example, http://www.climatechangenews.com/2017/11/14/war-amazon-says-brazils-top-environmental-enforcer/
  84. Wilander, C W (2017) “Illicit Confluences: the intersection of cocaine and illicit timber in the Amazon” http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/ art/illicit-confluences-the-intersection-of-cocaine-and-illicit-timber-in-the-amazon See also especially CIJP (2016) Empresas Bananeras. Vulneración de derechos humanos y narcotráfico en el Bajo Atrato CIJP, Bogotá http://jyp.megadatesystem.com/Informe-Empresas-bananeras-vulneracion-de-derechos-humanos
  85. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RpzteuWzEQw
  86. Lambin, F et al (2016) “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano” Proc Natl Acad Sci US A 113(15)(2016): 4021–4026 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC4839429/
  87. Colchester, M and Chao, S (Eds)(2013) Conflict or Consent? The palm oil sector at a crossroads FPP and Transformasi Untuk Keadilan INDONESIA http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/ publication/2013/11/conflict-or-consentenglishlowres.pdf
  88. Erikson-Davis, M (2017) “Illegal logging shows little sign of slowing” http://www.eco-business.com/news/illegal-logging-shows-little-sign-of-slowing/
  89. https://news.mongabay.com/2016/09/forests-in-colombia-fall-victim-to-illegal-coca-plantations/ See also, Armenteras D, Rodríguez N and Retana J and Morales M (2011) “Understanding deforestation in montane and lowland forests in the Colombian Andes” Regional Environmental Change 11(2013): 693-705
  90. http://www.bad-ag.info/countries/colombia/
  91. Yong, C SACESS and JKOASM (2014) Deforestation Drivers and Human Rights in Malaysia http://www.forestpeoples.org/topics/rights-land-natural-resources/publication/2014/deforestation-drivers-and-human-rights-malaysi
  92. http://www.bad-ag.info/countries/malaysia/#Illegalities
  93. Martens J, Aguayo E, López X, Orrego R, Samaniego M, Ávalos M, Ríos V and Vargas S (2016) Deforestación e Impunidad: Análisis de la actuación del Ministerio Público y del Poder Judicial en los casos de deforestación en la zona del Bosque Atlántico del Alto Paraná (BAAPA) Instituto de estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales y Sociales de Paraguay INECIP, Asunción http://inecip.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/ DEFORESTACION-E-IMPUNIDAD-corregido.pdf
  94. Perram, A (2016) Behind the Veil: transparency, access to information and community rights in Cameroon’s forest sector http://www. forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2016/06/behind-veil-artwork-english-web-1.pdf
  95. Colchester, M, Anderson P and Chao, S (2014) Assault on the Commons: deforestation and denial of peoples’ rights in Indonesia http://www. forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2014/12/assault-commons.pdf
  96. Martens J, Aguayo E, López X, Orrego R, Samaniego M, Ávalos M, Ríos V and Vargas S (2016) Deforestación e Impunidad: Análisis de la actuación del Ministerio Público y del Poder Judicial en los casos de deforestación en la zona del Bosque Atlántico del Alto Paraná (BAAPA) Instituto de estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales y Sociales de Paraguay INECIP, Asunción http://inecip.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/ DEFORESTACION-E-IMPUNIDAD-corregido.pdf
  97. Mendieta M (2016) Defensoras y Defensores Derechos Humanos en el Chaco Paraguayo: relatos de lucha por la tierra http://www.tierraviva. org.py/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Defensoras-y-Defensores-de- Derechos-Humanos-en-el-Chaco-Paraguayo.pdf
  98. Alecci, S (2017) Leaked Records Reveal Offshore’s Role in Forest Destruction https://www.icij.org/investigations/paradise-papers/ leaked-records-reveal-offshores-role-in-forest-destruction/ ; On tax avoidance in ‘green’ forest schemes involving forest carbon credits in Ucayali, Peru, see https://paradisepapers.ojo-publico.com/ investigacion/el-millonario-esquema-offshore-en-la-amazonia-peruana/
  99. Griffiths, T and Litvinoff, M (Eds) Securing Forests, Securing Rights Pusaka, Pokker SHK and FPP Moreton in Marsh and Jakarta
  100. Mainhardt H (2017) World Bank development policy finance props up fossil fuels and exacerbates climate change: findings from Peru, Indonesia, Egypt and Mozambique BIC, 11.11.11, Greenpeace, DAR Washington DC http://www.bankinformationcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ Exec-Summary-1.11.17-2.pdf
  101. http://agroparksdrc.com/
  102. Castiblanco Rozo, C (2014) Scenarios for future expansion of oil palm in Colombia: impacts generated by the biofuel sector PhD Thesis, Javeriana University, Bogotá https://repository.javeriana.edu.co/bitstream/ handle/10554/15737/CastiblancoRozoCarmenza2014.pdf?sequence=1
  103. Bennett A et al (2018) “The effects of rural development policy on land rights distribution and land use scenarios: The case of oil palm in the Peruvian Amazon” Land Use Policy 70 (2018):84-93
  104. Espinosa, R and Feather, C (2017) op. cit.
  105. McInness A (2017) A Comparison of Leading Palm Oil Certification Standards Forest Peoples Programme, Moreton in Marsh
  106. Colchester, M (nd) “Reforming commodity certification systems to respect indigenous peoples’ rights: prospects for the Forestry Stewardship Council and Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil” forthcoming
  107. Melka group company in Peru withdraws from RSPO as Shipibo complaint exposes land grabbing and illegal deforestation FPP and FECONAU Press release, November 2016 http://www.forestpeoples. org/topics/agribusiness/news/2016/11/melka-group-company-peru-withdraws-rspo-shipibo-complaint-exposes-l See also Loayza M (2017) Santa Clara: entre la palma y el tráfico de tierras https://www.servindi. org/printpdf/62600
  108. RSPO Complaints Panel Decision, 3 August 2017: Poligrow Ltda, Colombia https://rspo.org/files/download/0667825b2fa028b
  109. e.g. NYD (2016) Progress on the New York Declaration on Forests Elimination of Deforestation from Agricultural Commodities – Goal 2 Assessment Report forestdeclaration.org
  110. See, for example, Vasagnar J (2017) “Olam to pause Gabon forest clearance in victory for activists” Financial Times, 22 February 2017 https://www.ft.com/content/2d26daa0-f8af-11e6-9516-2d969e0d3b65
  111. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/ publications/forests/2017/Greenpeace_DirtyBankers_final.pdf
  112. https://eia-international.org/eia-still-watching-the-rspos-palm-oil-audit-watchmen; https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/responsible-finance-palm-oil-rspo/news-article/2017/rspo-freezes-goodhopes-operations-papua; Paddison, L (2017) “HSBC triggers investigation into palm oil company over deforestation allegations” The Guardian 17 July, 2017 https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/jul/17/ hsbc-investigation-palm-oil-company-deforestation-allegations-noble-plantations
  113. https://www.rspo.org/members/complaints/status-of-complaints/ view/103
  114. Oppuk, RAN and ILRF (2017) The Human Cost of Conflict Palm Oil Revisited: how Pepsico, Banks, and the RSPO Perpetuate Infofood’s Worker Exploitation, RAN-Oppuk,ILRF https://www.laborrights.org/ publications/human-cost-conflict-palm-oil-revisited
  115. Donofrio S, Rothrock P and Leonard J (2017) Supply Change: Tracking Corporate Commitments to Deforestation-Free Supply Chains, 2017 Forest Trends, Washington DC
  116. Colchester, M (2016) “High Carbon Stocks Forests: challenges in implementation” FPP E-newsletter (February 2016) http://www. forestpeoples.org/topics/redd-and-related-initiatives/news/2016/02/ high-carbon-stocks-forests-challenges-implementatio
  117. See, for example, Colchester, Marcus, Norman Jiwan and Emilola Kleden (2014) Independent review of the social impacts of Golden Agri Resources’ Forest Conservation Policy in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/ publication/2014/01/pt-kpc-report-january-2014final.pdf
  118. See, Colchester, M and Lohman L (1990) The Tropical Forestry Action Plan: What Progress? WRM and The Ecologist, Penang
  119. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2801e/i2801e.pdf
  120. While the VGGT have useful overarching principles as well as specific rights protections, the standard does contain loopholes and ambiguities in places. Some derogations (in relation to FPIC etc) inserted by governments, which seek to subvert international law to national law are especially unhelpful and have been condemned by some indigenous organisations.
  121. http://www.interlakengroup.org/annex/company-commitments
  122. OECD/FAO (2016) OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains OECD and FAO, Paris http://mneguidelines.oecd.org/ OECD-FAO-Guidance.pdf
  123. FAO (2014) Respecting free, prior and informed consent: Practical guidance for governments, companies, NGOs, indigenous peoples and local communities in relation to land acquisition FAO Governance of Tenure Technical Guide 3, FAO Rome http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3496e. pdf; FAO (2013) Improving governance of forest tenure: a practical guide FAO VGGT Technical Guide 2, FAO and IIED, Rome and London http:// pubs.iied.org/pdfs/12574IIED.pdf
  124. Interlaken Group and Rights and Resources Initiative (2017) Land Legacy Issues: Guidance on Corporate Responsibility Washington, D.C., Interlaken Group and RRI http://www.interlakengroup.org/downloads/ Interlaken_Group_Land_Legacy_Guidance-67109ad801cc7478fb8be79 8115b72d1.pdf?vsn=d
  125. See, for example, https://www.spott.org/
  126. Curtis, M (2015) New Alliance, New Risk of Land Grabs: evidence from Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania Action Aid International Secretariat, Johannesburg http://www.actionaid.org/sites/files/ actionaid/new20alliance20new20risks20of20land20grabs.pdf
  127. Bogado, M, Portillo, P and Villagra, R (2016) “The rental of Indigenous lands and territories in Paraguay” Cadernos de Lepaarq 13(26)(2016): 108-123
  128. Baumann, M et al (2017) “Deforestation and cattle expansion in the Paraguayan Chaco 1987–2012” Regional Environmental Change (April 2017), 17(4): 1179–1191
  129. Le Polain de Waroux, Y et al (2017) “The Restructuring of South American Soy and Beef Production and Trade Under Changing Environmental Regulations” World Development July 2017
  130. Oliveira, G and Hecht S (2016) “Sacred Groves, sacrifice zones and soy production: globalization, intensification and neo-nature in South America” Journal of Peasant Studies 42(2)(2016):251-285 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ pdf/10.1080/03066150.2016.1146705?needAccess=true
  131. Lambin et al (2016) op. cit.
  132. Carrizosa J, Tenjo Hurtado M and Álvarez Roa P (2016) Deforestación, políticas nacionales y derechos de los pueblos indígenas en la Amazonía colombiana Dedise and FPP, Bogotá at pages 43-44
  133. Wijaya A, Juliane R, Firmansyah R and Payne O (2017) Six Years After Moratorium, Satellite Data Shows Indonesia’s Tropical Forests Remain Threatened http://www.wri.org/blog/2017/05/6-years-after-moratorium-satellite-data-shows-indonesia%E2%80%99s-tropical-forests-remain
  134. https://unearthed.greenpeace.org/2017/05/18/democratic-republic-congo-rainforest/
  135. Kipalu, P et al (2016) op. cit.
  136. https://www.documents.clientearth.org/wp-content/uploads/ library/2017-03-20-eutr-news-from-march-2016-to-march-2017-ce-en. pdf
  137. https://content.eia-global.org/posts/documents/000/000/466/original/ EIA_Lacey_Testimony.pdf?1468870480
  138. Jonsson R, Giurca A, Masiero M, Pepke E, Pettenella D, Prestemon J and Winkel G (2015) Assessment of the EU Timber Regulation and FLEGT Action Plan. From Science to Policy European Forest Institute. http:// www.efi.int/files/attachments/publications/efi_fstp_1_2015.pdf
  139. Hill, D (2017) Buyers in Good Faith?: How Timber Exporters are Complicit in Plundering Peru’s Amazon Global Witness, London
  140. dos Santos Massoca E P, Delaroche, M and Lui G (2017) “Lessons from the soy and beef moratoria in Brazil” in Pasiecznik, N and Savenije H (Eds) (2017) op. cit.
  141. Branford, S and Torres, M (2017) “Amazon Soy Moratorium: defeating deforestation or greenwash diversion?” https://news.mongabay. com/2017/03/amazon-soy-moratorium-defeating-deforestation-or-greenwash-diversion/
  142. Perram, A (2015) Human Rights and Timber Supply Chains FPP, Moreton in Marsh
  143. A seminar on essential elements for a Legality Definition and Legality Assurance Scheme (LAS) in the Guyana-EU FLEGT VPA (2015) APA and FPP, Georgetown and Moreton in Marsh http://www.forestpeoples.org/ sites/default/files/news/2015/11/Summary%20report%20from%20 legality%20seminar.pdf
  144. Marrakesh Declaration for the Sustainable Development of the Oil Palm Sector in Africa. https://www.proforest.net/en/files/tfa2020_ marrakesh_declaration_post-embargoed_april.pdf
  145. DRAFT Action Plan for Implementation of Responsible Palm Oil Production in Liberia, 2016
  146. Letter to Forest Department re “Tropical Forest Alliance 2020 Africa Palm Oil Initiative – 2nd Liberia Country Workshop” signed by community representatives from River Cess, Maryland, Grand Bassa, Gbarpolo, Sinoe, Bomi, Grand cape Mount and Grand Kuri counties: September 2016
  147. See, for example, Brown S and Zarin D (2013) “What does zero deforestation mean?” Science 342 (6160)(2013): 805-807
  148. Forest Peoples Programme, International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity and CBD Secretariat (2016) Local Biodiversity Outlooks: Indigenous Peoples’ and Local Communities’ Contributions to the Implementation of the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011-2020) – complement to the fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook, FPP, Moreton in Marsh.
  149. https://www.cgdev.org/blog/indigenous-peoples-rights-and-redd
  150. See, for example, Sunderlin, W (2014) The challenge of establishing REDD+ on the ground: Insights from 23 subnational initiatives in six countries CIFOR, Bogor. See also Duchelle A E et al (2017) “Balancing carrots and sticks in REDD+: implications for social safeguards” Ecology and Society 22(3): https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09334-220302
  151. See Sarmiento Barletti J P and Larson A M (2017) Rights abuse allegations in the context of REDD+ readiness and implementation: a preliminary review and proposal for moving forward CIFOR Info-brief No. 190, October 2017 DOI: 10.17528/cifor/006630 http://www.cifor. org/publications/pdf_files/infobrief/6630-infobrief.pdf. See also Dehm, J (2016) “Indigenous peoples and REDD+ safeguards: rights as resistance or as disciplinary inclusion in the green economy?” Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 7(2)(2016): 170–217
  152. Carter S et al (2017) “Large scale land acquisitions and REDD+: a synthesis of conflicts and opportunities” Environmental Research Letters 12(3) (2017): http://iopscience.iop.org/ article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6056
  153. Kowler, L, Ravikumar A, Larson A M, Rodquiez Ward D, Burga C and Gonzalez Tovar J (2016) Analyzing multilevel governance in Peru: Lessons from REDD+ from the study of land use change and benefit sharing in Madre de Dios, Ucayali and San Martin Working Paper 203, CIFOR , Bogor
  154. Fern and FPP (2014) Implement in haste, Repent at Leisure: A call for rethinking the World Bank’s Carbon Fund, based on an analysis of the Democratic Republic of Congo Emissions Reduction - Project Idea Note (ER-PIN) http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/ publication/2014/04/fern-and-fpp-drc-5.pdf
  155. Moonen P C J et al (2016) “Actor-based identification of deforestation drivers paves the road to effective REDD+ in DR Congo “Land Use Policy (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.07.019
  156. See, for example, An emergency call to action for the forests, their peoples and life on earth. The Penang Declaration of the World Rainforest Movement, 1989 http://wrm.org.uy/fr/autres-informations-pertinentes/ an-emergency-call-to-action-for-the-forests-their-peoples-and-life-on-earth-the-penang-declaration-of-the-world-rainforest-movement/
  157. https://guardianesdelbosque.org/ See also ‘For us, the land is sacred’: on the road with the defenders of the world’s forests” The Guardian, 4 November 2017 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/ nov/04/bonn-climate-conference-on-the-road-with-defenders-of-the-forest
  158. See, for example, Blackman, A et al (2017) “Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon” PNAS 114(16) (2017):4123–412; Davis A and Kandel S (2016) Conservation and Community Rights: Lessons from Mesoamerica RF-US, Clark University and PRISMA; Ding H, Veit P, Gray E, Reytar K, Altamirano J C, Blackman A and Hodgdon B (2016) Climate Benefits, Tenure Costs: The Economic Case For Securing Indigenous Land Rights in the Amazon WRI, Washington DC; Vergara-Asenjo G and Potvin C (2014) “Forest protection and tenure status: The key role of indigenous peoples and protected areas in Panama” Global Environmental Change 28 (September 2014): 205-215; Persha L, Agrawal A and Chhatre A (2011) “Social and ecological synergy: local rulemaking, forest livelihoods, and biodiversity conservation” Science 331(6024)(2011):1606-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1199343; Ricketts T H et al (2010) “Indigenous Lands, Protected Areas, and Slowing Climate Change” PloS Biology, March 2010; Sobrevilla, C (2008) The Role of Indigenous Peoples in Biodiversity Conservation: The Natural but Often Forgotten Partners World Bank, Washington DC; Hayes, T M and Murtinho, F (2008) “Are indigenous forest reserves sustainable? An analysis of present and future land-use trends in Bosawas, Nicaragua” International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 15(6)(2008): 497-511; Nepstad, D., Schwartzman, S, Bamberger, B., Santilli M, Ray, D., Schlesinger, P., Lefebvre, P., Alencar, A., Prinz, E., Fiske, G., and Rolla, A (2006) “Inhibition of Amazon Deforestation and Fire by Parks and Indigenous Lands” Conservation Biology 20(1)(2006): 65–73
  159. Schleicher J, Peres C A, Amano T, Llactayo W and Leader-Williams N (2017) “Conservation performance of different conservation governance regimes in the Peruvian Amazon” Nature Scientific reports Article number 7: 11318 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10736-w
  160. See especially, Espinosa, R and Feather, C (2017) op cit.
  161. Monterrosso I, Cronkleton P, Pinedo D and Larson A M (2017) Reclaiming Collective Rights: land and forest tenure reform in Peru (1960-2016), Working paper 224, CIFOR, Bogor http://www.cifor.org/ publications/pdf_files/WPapers/WP224Monterroso.pdf
  162. See, for example ACTIMA, COINPA, ACIMA, CRIMA, AZCAITA, AIPEA, CIMPUM, AIZA, PANI, ASOAINTAM, CIMTAR, YOI, CIHTACOYD, CAPIUL and TIWA (2016) Mandato Primera Cumbre Intergeneracional de Autoridades Ancestrales-Tradicionales y Líderes Indígenas del Departamento del Amazonas, Comunidad de Nuevo Jardín, 12-16 septiembre de 2016; Los Pueblos indígenas del Territorio de Vida enviamos un mensaje al mundo Comunicación de Prensa, 25 de abril de 2017 http://www.forestpeoples.org/es/topics/fondo-para-el-medio-ambiente-mundial-fmam/news/2017/04/prensa-los-pueblos-indigenas-del-terri
  163. http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/topics/participatory-resource-mapping/news/2012/01/new-video-participatory-3d-modelling-bwindi-impen
  164. See, for example, SciDevNet (2015) Forest Communities Map Their Land Using Data Loggers http://www.scidev.net/global/data/news/forest-communities-map-land-using-data-loggers.html
  165. http://jkpp.org/
  166. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/work-themes/responsible-finance-private-sector/high-carbon-stock-approach
  167. HCSA Toolkit (Version 2.0) Module 2 at page 12 http://highcarbonstock. org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/HCSA-Toolkit-v2.0-Module-2- Social-Requirements-211117-web.pdf
  168. Supra note 123
  169. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/environmental-governance/press-release/2017/press-release-wapichan-people-expose-rights-violations
  170. Capasso, C (2017) “Community-based monitoring to end oil pollution in the Peruvian Amazon” Perspectives 26, November 2017 UNEP http:// www.forestpeoples.org/sites/default/files/documents/Perspectives%20 article.pdf
  171. See www.tierrasindigenas.org.py
  172. See www.tierrasindigenas.org.py and www.fapi.org.py
  173. Wolosin, M (2016) WWF Discussion Paper: Jurisdictional approaches to zero deforestation commodities WWF, http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k. cloudfront.net/downloads/wwf_jurisdictional_approaches_to_zdcs_ nov_2016.pdf
  174. Earth Innovation Institute (2017) Jurisdictional Sustainability: a guide for practitioners https://earthinnovation.org/wp-content/ uploads/2017/02/JS-primer_Englishonline.pdf
  175. Ryan, Y I (2017) Jurisdictional Approach: a stakeholder collaboration within landscape towards Sustainable Producers RSPO, Kuala Lumpur. http://sustainability-college.rspo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/ Jurisdicational-Approach-POC.pdf
  176. MacIsaac, T (2017) “Jurisdictional certification approach aims to strengthen protections against deforestation” Mongabay Global Forests, Global Palm Oil Series https://news.mongabay.com/2017/04/ jurisdictional-certification-approach-aims-to-strengthen-protections-against-deforestation/
  177. TFA2020 (2017) Supporting jurisdictional leadership in net zero deforestation through sustainable value chains: Opportunities for TFA 2020 https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ TFA2020-Supporting-jurisdictional-leadership-in-net-zero-deforestation-Report.pdf
  178. See, for example, McAfee, K (2016) “A jurisdictional approach will not solve the most serious REDD+ problems” REDD Monitor http://www.redd-monitor.org www.tierrasindigenas.org.py /2016/07/01/a-jurisdictional-approach-will-not-solve-the-most-serious-redd-problems/
  179. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/rights-land-natural-resources-extractive-industries/press-release/2017/groundbreaking-win
  180. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/topics/rights-land-natural-resources/news/2015/11/press-release-wampis-nation-peruvian-amazon-declar
  181. http://www.forestpeoples.org/region/peru/news/2017/07/wampis-people-successfully-evict-illegal-gold-miners-their-territory-and-ca See also http://www.forestpeoples.org/region/peru/news/2017/07/ wampis-call-peruvian-government-control-illegal-gold-mining-river-santiago-
  182. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/environmental-governance/press-release/2017/press-release-wapichan-people-expose-rights-violations
  183. ttp://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2012/05/ wapichan-mp-22may12lowresnomarks.pdf
  184. Pearce, F (2015) Where They Stand FPP, Moreton in Marsh https://www. forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2015/10/where-they-standweb-spreads.pdf
  185. http://www.forestpeoples.org/topics/rights-land-natural-resources/ publication/2016/csos-position-statement-land-authority-act-laa
  186. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Paraguay-Finally-Opens-Talks-with-Ayoreo-Tribe-over-Land-Claims-20170323-0025.html
  187. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/october/tradoc_153846.pdf
  188. ile:///C:/Users/Fppguest/Downloads/Amsterdam+Declaration+Defores tation+%2526+Agro-Scommodity+chains.pdf
  189. https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/366172
  190. https://wn.com/Gua_Musang_orang_asli_vow_to_continue_protests
  191. https://www.forestpeoples.org/en/topics/rights-land-natural-resources/news/2016/10/new-platform-indigenous-peoples-cameroon
  192. http://www.forestpeoples.org/en/palm-oil-rspo/news-article/2017/ pekanbaru-resolution-indigenous-peoples-rights-land-and-forests
  193. The CLUP approach is used to map customary land and strengthen land claims in the context of High Conservation Value and High Carbon Stocks Approach (HCSA) tools.